13.13 sqlite3 -- DB-API 2.0 interface for SQLite databases

New in version 2.5.

SQLite is a C library that provides a lightweight disk-based database that doesn't require a separate server process and allows accessing the database using a nonstandard variant of the SQL query language. Some applications can use SQLite for internal data storage. It's also possible to prototype an application using SQLite and then port the code to a larger database such as PostgreSQL or Oracle.

pysqlite was written by Gerhard Häring and provides a SQL interface compliant with the DB-API 2.0 specification described by PEP 249.

To use the module, you must first create a Connection object that represents the database. Here the data will be stored in the /tmp/example file:

conn = sqlite3.connect('/tmp/example')

You can also supply the special name ":memory:" to create a database in RAM.

Once you have a Connection, you can create a Cursor object and call its execute() method to perform SQL commands:

c = conn.cursor()

# Create table
c.execute('''create table stocks
(date text, trans text, symbol text,
 qty real, price real)''')

# Insert a row of data
c.execute("""insert into stocks
          values ('2006-01-05','BUY','RHAT',100,35.14)""")

# Save (commit) the changes

# We can also close the cursor if we are done with it

Usually your SQL operations will need to use values from Python variables. You shouldn't assemble your query using Python's string operations because doing so is insecure; it makes your program vulnerable to an SQL injection attack.

Instead, use the DB-API's parameter substitution. Put "?" as a placeholder wherever you want to use a value, and then provide a tuple of values as the second argument to the cursor's execute() method. (Other database modules may use a different placeholder, such as "%s" or ":1".) For example:

# Never do this -- insecure!
symbol = 'IBM'
c.execute("... where symbol = '%s'" % symbol)

# Do this instead
t = (symbol,)
c.execute('select * from stocks where symbol=?', t)

# Larger example
for t in (('2006-03-28', 'BUY', 'IBM', 1000, 45.00),
          ('2006-04-05', 'BUY', 'MSOFT', 1000, 72.00),
          ('2006-04-06', 'SELL', 'IBM', 500, 53.00),
    c.execute('insert into stocks values (?,?,?,?,?)', t)

To retrieve data after executing a SELECT statement, you can either treat the cursor as an iterator, call the cursor's fetchone() method to retrieve a single matching row, or call fetchall() to get a list of the matching rows.

This example uses the iterator form:

>>> c = conn.cursor()
>>> c.execute('select * from stocks order by price')
>>> for row in c:
...    print row
(u'2006-01-05', u'BUY', u'RHAT', 100, 35.140000000000001)
(u'2006-03-28', u'BUY', u'IBM', 1000, 45.0)
(u'2006-04-06', u'SELL', u'IBM', 500, 53.0)
(u'2006-04-05', u'BUY', u'MSOFT', 1000, 72.0)

See Also:

The pysqlite web page.

The SQLite web page; the documentation describes the syntax and the available data types for the supported SQL dialect.

PEP 249, Database API Specification 2.0
PEP written by Marc-André Lemburg.

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