The getmembers() function retrieves the members of an object such as a class or module. The eleven functions whose names begin with ``is'' are mainly provided as convenient choices for the second argument to getmembers(). They also help you determine when you can expect to find the following special attributes:
|__file__||filename (missing for built-in modules)|
|__module__||name of module in which this class was defined|
|__name__||name with which this method was defined|
|im_class||class object that asked for this method||(1)|
|im_func||function object containing implementation of method|
|im_self||instance to which this method is bound, or
|__name__||name with which this function was defined|
|func_code||code object containing compiled function bytecode|
|func_defaults||tuple of any default values for arguments|
|func_doc||(same as __doc__)|
|func_globals||global namespace in which this function was defined|
|func_name||(same as __name__)|
|traceback||tb_frame||frame object at this level|
|tb_lasti||index of last attempted instruction in bytecode|
|tb_lineno||current line number in Python source code|
|tb_next||next inner traceback object (called by this level)|
|frame||f_back||next outer frame object (this frame's caller)|
|f_builtins||built-in namespace seen by this frame|
|f_code||code object being executed in this frame|
|f_exc_traceback||traceback if raised in this frame, or
|f_exc_type||exception type if raised in this frame, or
|f_exc_value||exception value if raised in this frame, or
|f_globals||global namespace seen by this frame|
|f_lasti||index of last attempted instruction in bytecode|
|f_lineno||current line number in Python source code|
|f_locals||local namespace seen by this frame|
|f_restricted||0 or 1 if frame is in restricted execution mode|
|f_trace||tracing function for this frame, or
|code||co_argcount||number of arguments (not including * or ** args)|
|co_code||string of raw compiled bytecode|
|co_consts||tuple of constants used in the bytecode|
|co_filename||name of file in which this code object was created|
|co_firstlineno||number of first line in Python source code|
|co_lnotab||encoded mapping of line numbers to bytecode indices|
|co_name||name with which this code object was defined|
|co_names||tuple of names of local variables|
|co_nlocals||number of local variables|
|co_stacksize||virtual machine stack space required|
|co_varnames||tuple of names of arguments and local variables|
|__name__||original name of this function or method|
|__self__||instance to which a method is bound, or
Noneif it would not be identified as a module. The return tuple is
(name, suffix, mode, mtype), where name is the name of the module without the name of any enclosing package, suffix is the trailing part of the file name (which may not be a dot-delimited extension), mode is the open() mode that would be used (
'rb'), and mtype is an integer giving the type of the module. mtype will have a value which can be compared to the constants defined in the imp module; see the documentation for that module for more information on module types.
This is new as of Python 2.2, and, for example, is true of int.__add__. An object passing this test has a __get__ attribute but not a __set__ attribute, but beyond that the set of attributes varies. __name__ is usually sensible, and __doc__ often is.
Methods implemented via descriptors that also pass one of the other tests return false from the ismethoddescriptor() test, simply because the other tests promise more - you can, e.g., count on having the im_func attribute (etc) when an object passes ismethod().
Data descriptors have both a __get__ and a __set__ attribute. Examples are properties (defined in Python), getsets, and members. The latter two are defined in C and there are more specific tests available for those types, which is robust across Python implementations. Typically, data descriptors will also have __name__ and __doc__ attributes (properties, getsets, and members have both of these attributes), but this is not guaranteed. New in version 2.3.
getsets are attributes defined in extension modules via
structures. For Python implementations without such types, this method will
New in version 2.5.
Member descriptors are attributes defined in extension modules via
PyMemberDef structures. For Python implementations without such
types, this method will always return
New in version 2.5.
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