5. Miscellaneous Services

The modules described in this chapter provide miscellaneous services that are available in all Python versions. Here's an overview:

pydoc |
Documentation generator and online help system. | |

doctest |
A framework for verifying examples in docstrings. | |

unittest |
Unit testing framework for Python. | |

test |
Regression tests package containing the testing suite for Python. | |

test.test_support |
Support for Python regression tests. | |

math |
Mathematical functions (sin() etc.). | |

cmath |
Mathematical functions for complex numbers. | |

random |
Generate pseudo-random numbers with various common distributions. | |

whrandom |
Floating point pseudo-random number generator. | |

bisect |
Array bisection algorithms for binary searching. | |

heapq |
Heap queue algorithm (a.k.a. priority queue). | |

array |
Efficient arrays of uniformly typed numeric values. | |

sets |
Implementation of sets of unique elements. | |

itertools |
Functions creating iterators for efficient looping. | |

ConfigParser |
Configuration file parser. | |

fileinput |
Perl-like iteration over lines from multiple input streams, with ``save in place'' capability. | |

xreadlines |
Efficient iteration over the lines of a file. | |

calendar |
Functions for working with calendars,
including some emulation of the Unix cal
program. | |

cmd |
Build line-oriented command interpreters. | |

shlex |
Simple lexical analysis for Unix shell-like languages. |

See